Sensors aren’t always placed in locations that make data networking connectivity easy. One rather extreme example would be the slopes of Iceland’s Eyjafjallajökull volcano, which is capable of making ground travel in the area extremely hazardous. In extreme events, like the eruptions of 2010, Eyjafjallajökull can emit so much ash that it disrupts air travel all over Europe.
The Icelandic Meteorological Office observes Eyjafjallajökull with a wide array of sensors ranging from seismographs and GPS units to flow meters and thermometers. They can’t control the volcano, but they can make informed predictions about its behavior.
Between lava flows, ash fall and earth tremors, installing and maintaining a data communications cable run on a live a volcano would be a very expensive proposition. The Icelandic Meteorological Office needed a wireless solution that could do its job in a very tough environment.
Of the 70 million corporate washrooms, 20 percent are equipped with environmentally unfriendly, inefficient, and unhygienic hand-dryers and around 80 percent offer expensive paper towels that create three million tons of waste. As such, reducing building management costs, boosting facility efficiencies, and cutting energy use is very lucrative. SAVORTEX has built the world's first IoT-enabled messaging hand-dryer to disrupt this inefficient sector and transform corporate washrooms into smart spaces. Built on Intel® technology, the SAVORTEX AdDryer* uses the Internet of Things (IoT) to deliver waste savings, alert cleaners to washroom needs based on usage, and engage consumers with tailored, high-definition video messages, allowing enterprises to transform costly commercial washrooms into connected, hygienic, and sustainable revenue-producing assets.
Ingrained issues: High costs, inefficient maintenance, and energy consumption in washrooms make them difficult to manage. SAVORTEX wanted to solve multiple problems at once.
Excessive waste: The prevalent drying choice of expensive paper towels significantly impacts the environment in both manufacture and disposal.
Status quo: Conventional brushed-motor hand-dryers are energy-hungry and have a short life-expectancy so are costly to run, but finding budget to deploy new solutions on the necessary scale can be difficult.
Municipalities and public institutions are concerned about air, water, noise or lighting pollution in cities. In the last years, it has become mandatory through several international regulations to reduce emissions that could impact in the environment and also inhabitants lives.
Being a Smart City is more than just a trend, is a commitment with society and stakeholders.
Carbon Track and Trace Project (CTT) aim is reducing CO2 emissions, combating climate change in cities and also developing a decision support system for cities greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions monitoring. It was funded by the Low Carbon City Lab flagship of the EU Climate KIC programme.
Water pumping, treatment and conveyance are among the largest energy and cost outlays for many local and regional municipalities. Electricity time-of-use rates and peak pricing tariffs are driving those costs even higher. This case study describes how Monterey Regional Water Pollution Control Agency (MRWPCA) implemented a process data monitoring and control solution in order to analyze and optimize energy use, reduce deployment costs and save operational expenses.
The 2008 Beijing Summer Olympics highlighted an issue facing much of China: infrastructure construction is not keeping up with population demand. China is one of the fastest growing vehicle markets in the world with an estimated 20,000 new vehicles hitting the road each day. The problems at the Olympics were exasperated by an increase in tourist traffic and a need to quickly and easily install an intelligent transportation system powerful enough to handle Beijing’s tough traffic problems.
The systems created for the Olympic Games needed to be highly accurate and reliable. Detection devices also had to accurately detect traffic over eight to 10 lanes. Inductive loops take too long to install and were unreliable and unable to adapt to changing traffic patterns.
To implement air quality monitoring of Ozone / O3, VOCs, Nitrogen Oxides / NO2, Dust Particulates, PM1, PM2.5, PM10.
The Oregon Department of Transportation has implemented an advance warning system that alerts drivers entering a tunnel to the presence of slow or stopped traffic at the tunnel’s exit. The system uses a combination of SmartSensor Advance and Matrix units to detect traffic; if certain conditions exist, the system activates a flashing sign that warns drivers to slow down.
Transportation officials in Oregon were faced with a dangerous traffic situation at the interchange between Interstate 84 and Interstate 205 east of Portland: a significant number of rear-end collisions were occurring because drivers were unaware that traffic ahead of them had slowed or stopped. The problem occurred at a tunnel that drivers must enter to merge from westbound I-84 onto southbound I-205. There is a sharp left turn just after the tunnel and traffic often backs up to the tunnel exit, particularly during peak congestion times. Drivers entering the tunnel at full speed were unaware of conditions ahead of them, and could not see stopped traffic around the turn.
Since electricity costs keep on rising, the bills for convenience stores keep on increasing and unfortunately it’s difficult for convenience stores to raise their prices to maintain the same profit margins. Variable overheads are difficult to budget for and give accountants a headache, therefore one convenience store chain in Thailand has decided to redress the balance and put themselves in chargeof power generation by installing solar panels in their stores.
Our customer wanted to reduce their energy costs by at least 10 percent and having installed solar panels in their store locations they needed to be able to send the power to where it was needed and when it was needed. Since the stores are open for 24 hours and it’s onlysunny forroughly 12 of those, it was essential that the power distribution to the lighting and refrigeration units was managed efficiently.
Unmanned weather stations play an essential role in the effort to analyze and predict the world's ever-changing weather patterns. The unmanned stations collect and store large amounts of weather data and then download the data at regular intervals to a back-end host for analysis and long-term storage. The computing device housed in the weather station must be robust enough to work continuously for long periods of time while exposed to a wide range of temperatures. It should also be able to collect readings from various sensors that use different data transmission protocols, and have the capability to store large amounts of data.
The Icelandic Meteorological Office connected their remote sensors to B+B cellular routers. The B+B routers provide Ethernet connections anywhere there’s cellular service as well as ample bandwidth, even for applications that require video. They will connect both LANs and individual devices. Dual SIM card holders provide network redundancy. And with their rugged specifications, B+B routers can keep doing their jobs when the going gets tough – even when Eyjafjallajökull decides to make it things even harder.
Strong performance per watt: SAVORTEX chose Intel® Atom™ processors to power its hand-dryers because they are powerful yet very energy efficient.
Rugged and reliable: This version of the Intel Atom processor is a ruggedized compute platform in a sealed environment that can withstand extreme temperatures (-40 to 110 degrees) for excellent longevity.
IoT Connectivity: SAVORTEX deployed Intel® Dual Band Wireless-N 7260 network adapters within its solutions, including Intel® Smart Connect Technology, to be able to confidently connect to the cloud.
The Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) has led this project based on wireless sensor networks with Libelium Waspmote Sensor Platform. The Smart City plan has been deployed in two Nordic municipalities as test beds: Trondheim (Norway) and Vejle (Denmark).
The first stage of CTT project revealed a significant gap between Norwegian municipalities’ current methodologies and official standards for greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) monitoring and reporting. This difference was also detected in worldwide cities. Current phase, CTT 2.0, has focused on developing an automated system for GHG emissions monitoring and reporting, through the use of bottom-up sensor-based measurements.
Technicians have chosen Libelium open-source hardware and sensor technology to develop this real-time monitoring system. The factors that have motivated are the following:
• Ease of use
• Availability of calibrated sensors
• Compatibility with LoRaWAN
• Weather proof enclosure for the technology
• Encapsuled versions with easy deployment
Wireless sensor networks deployed in Trondheim and Vejle are based in Plug & Sense! Smart Environment PRO, a platform that features maximum performance sensors for metering that require accurate ppm or percentage and are able to read up to 16 gas sensors. For this deployment the sensors installed have been: carbon dioxide (CO ), nitric oxide (NO), particle matter – dust (PM1, PM2.5 and PM10), temperature, pressure and humidity.
Communication between Waspmote Plug & Sense! nodes and gateways is done through LoRaWAN, while the gateways communicate with the cloud through a common Ethernet wiring. CTT2.0 currently uses The Things Network as a cloud backend which is an opensource community aimed at creating a global IoT network based on LoRaWAN.
The application developed to visualise data is CTT Urban Overview that allows monitoring the network itself and also data analysis. Data is taken from sensors nodes as well as external information sources and is used to analyse and calibrate the measurements and conflate them to build a detailed overview of emissions in the city.
Trondheim and Vejle wanted to get a platform to visualise the information and allow the analysis of the measurement data. This valuable information is helpful to know in real-time gas emissions and pollution levels to meet environmental regulations and get feedback about mitigation actions.
“TCTT Urban Overview giving information from a node deployed in Vejlehe main goal of CTT2.0 is to provide a city with an automated system for GHG emissions monitoring and reporting, with the requirement of direct feedback of the city’s emissions reduction initiatives. Thus, an accompanying goal is integration of CTT2.0 into a city’s decision support system“, affirmed Fredrik Anthonisen, technical manager of CTT Project.
This project wants to provide municipalties and public institutions with an open system to allow inhabitants know what happens in their cities in relation to GHG and pollution. The platform will offer open data not only for citizens but also for research institutions or companies to develop other projects.
Engineers determined that MRWPCA has the potential for additional peak power reductions by monitoring and controlling “time of use” (TOU) power requirements at the plant. Savings would come in part from qualifying for alternative PG&E rate structures, leveraging the use of the solar installation and carefully controlling monthly peak power demand. The plant set a goal to maintain peak loads below 500 kW to qualify for a lower electricity tariff that would minimize monthly costs. These energy management goals required the ability to closely monitor and analyze a massive amount of new real-time data from twenty individual pumps and plant processes, with the ability to control discretionary lighting loads. In order to facilitate these goals, MRWPCA chose and installed a new energy and demand monitoring system. The MRWPCA energy monitoring and demand management system was developed through a cooperative effort with MC Engineering, Inc., a California-based engineering consulting firm, and Candi Controls, which provides a cloud-based platform for machine-to-machine (M2M) data monitoring and control. MC Engineering specializes in identifying efficiency gains for water and wastewater utilities by leveraging technology and real-time data to develop projects that are funded from resulting efficiency gains and related savings. Candi Controls specializes in cross-platform, device- and protocol-agnostic communications. The company also has a suite of “PowerTools” user-interface templates which leverage its M2M platform, one of which was used to cost-effectively create a unique MRWPCA mobile and browser app. Water treatment systems analysts began the project by obtaining in-depth knowledge of plant operations, conducting a facility audit and targeting strategic loads for monitoring. Low-cost energy monitors were then installed at strategic locations throughout the plant to meter instantaneous power usage. The data is encrypted and streamed via a local network to a hosted cloud service for archiving and processing. Additional network-based control switches were installed to manage industrial lighting during high-use periods if required to help keep peak load below the threshold goal. By monitoring large loads that have some degree of operator discretionary control, an optimal time-of-use strategy and target usage peak was to be maintained. The data and controls are managed through a software Application Programmer Interface (API) and presented to operators through a secure web-based graphical interface on laptops, computer screens and portable Apple iPad tablets. The app includes a Facility Overview page to provide staff with at-a-glance real time power data.
SmartSensor HD was selected for the project because it proved to be more accurate than video detection, and much easier to install than loops or other non-intrusive devices. Min Der Day, director of Asia ITS for Wavetronix, said HD’s ease of installation came in handy because, with the high amount of work needed to prepare for the games, the ITS system had to be deployed in the overnight hours. The end result saw more than 200 HD units installed at strategic locations around the city with self-sustaining solar power and wireless communications. The sensors provided real-time traffic information for some of the most important roadways in Beijing, including the newly-constructed Airport Expressway; the Badaling Expressway that leads to the Great Wall; the Beijing-to-Chengde Expressway; and internal Ring Roads Two and Five – major routes between Olympic venues. Data was used to update variable message signs for real-time traffic information as well as for television, radio and Internet traffic information.
Blue Tomorrow deployed Valarm air quality monitoring units in the Central Valley in California near Kern County.
These boxes integrated Industrial IoT hardware from all over the world to effectively measure air quality sensor factors like:
• Dust and Particulate Matter, PM1, PM2.5, PM10
• Ozone a.k.a. O3
• NO2 a.k.a. Nitrogen Dioxide
• Volatile Organic Compounds a.k.a. VOCs
Examples of VOCs were things like alcohols, aldehydes, aliphatic hydro-carbons, amines, aromatic hydro-carbons (e.g., gasoline vapors), carbon oxides, methane, LPG, ketones, and organic acids.
These solar powered units sent real-time air quality sensor measurements to Tools.Valarm.net using this key sensor hardware from Shop.Valarm.net:
• GSM 3G Sensor Hubs
• TTL Serial Sensor Adapters
• Meteo Sensors – Temperature, Humidity, and Pressure
• SPI Serial Sensor Adapters
ODOT Signal Manager Doug Anderson worked with ATP to install two SmartSensor Advance units and one SmartSensor Matrix near the left turn: one Advance detects traffic backups on the merge ramp; the other Advance faces the tunnel exit to detect traffic speeds at the beginning of the turn; and the Matrix sensor faces east to detect traffic that has stopped in the turn. If any or all of the sensors detect slow or stopped traffic, the detection will trigger a flashing message sign at the tunnel’s entrance that warns drivers to reduce their speed.
To manage the distribution of power, the customer implemented a building automation system using BASPro software installed on a DDC controller. By using a touch panel computer, with WebAccess installed on a 10.4” touch panel computer, the power can be controlled as necessary.
BASPro is a programming software package suitable for building automation application, perfectly integrating with BAS-3500 Series DDC Controller (Direct Digital Controller). BASPro features rich function blocks like mathematical calculation, dataconversion, logic operation, alarm, eventand timer, and control algorithm (PID, Ramp, ON/OFF switch control). Moreover, BASPro also provides many BA domain function blocks, such as scheduler, HVAC calculation and sequential control, which are commonly used in building applications. Developers can benefit from savingdevelopment timeby the function blocks. Engineers can developapplications on their computer. After the application program is complete, it canbe downloaded to the BAS-3500 series through Ethernet. Then BAS-3500 series becomes a standalone controller since it can execute the program by itself. Besides, BASPro delivers simulation function that you can observe the program execution situation before the program is downloaded to the BAS-3500 series.
WebAccess is a browser based SCADA software that is used to graphically control and monitor the data from the BAS-3024 and ADAM-4055 remote IO modules attached to the cooling units and the lighting. It is installed on a TPC-1071H touch panel computer. The TPC -1071H is a 10.4” SVGA TFT LED LCDIntel Atom Dual-core D525 that includes WindowsXP embedded and WebAccess.
The EKI-2525/2528 supports a Fast Ethernet solution. The power is a 12 ~ 48 VDC redundant input design, and is secured with a double protection mechanism: Power Polarity Reverse Protect and an Overload Current Resetable Fuse. The former tolerates reverse power wiring while the later secures the system from overload currents. Asthe power supply turns normal, EKI-2525/2528 will automatically get back to work. Each port of EKI-2525/2528 has 2 LED’s to show the link status transmission speed and collision status. It also provides a relay output for an eventalarm.In theevent of a power failure,the built-in LED willactivate the alarm to notify administrators. Engineers can simply verify the hardware status by checking the LED, and have troubleshooting easy and quick. EKI-2525/2528 comes with compact metal housing that rates IP30 to help against from dusty industrial environments.
BAS-3520 is a standalone programmable controller specially designed for building automation (BA) applications. Designed as a typical DDC(Direct Digital Controller), BAS-3520 delivers various of onboard I/O including universal input, analog output, digital input and digital output, providing flexible options to satisfy versatileapplication requirements. It also features powerful BASPro programming tool for engineers to quickly develop their application. BASPro delivers many function blocks suitable for BA application, such as scheduler, HVAC calculation, sequential control, PID control, alarm, and event. Its compact size makes it an ideal solution tofulfill BA installation environment. Connected to the controller are BAS-3024 Remote IO module and ADAM-4055 modules.
The BAS-3024 expansion I/O modules can be stackedonthe DDC controller, or can serve as remotestandalone I/O modules through an RS-485 network. These expansion I/O modules add both scalability and flexibility to Advantech BAS-3000 solutions. Like the DDC, I/O expansion modules can be programmed using the BASPro programming tool.The ADAM-4055 offers 8-ch. isolated digital inputs and 8-ch. isolated digital outputs for critical applications. The inputs accept 10~50 Vvoltage, and the outputs supply 5~40 VDC opencollector. Consideredto be user-friendly. The ADAM-4055 is also builtwith LED indicator for easy status reading.
Protocol Conversion and Front-end Data Processing The data collected by a typical unmanned weather station includes temperature, rainfall and snow accumulation, air pressure, humidity, and ultraviolet intensity. One of the tasks that the UC-7420 unit must handle is protocol conversion, since there is no guarantee that the devices collecting the weather data all use the same protocol. In addition, the UC-7420 can be used to do preliminary data processing before downloading data to the central computer. MOXA's UC-7420 is ideally suited for these tasks, since the user can easily embed a C program that is custom written for the devices used at the station. If future changes involve adding or removing devices, the programmer simply needs to modify the C code, recompile it, and then download the executable program over the network to the UC-7420 unit. Connecting to the Network and the Internet In addition to being programmable, the UC-7420 also offers users an array of connection options. To begin with, data entering the serial ports from attached sensors can be processed and then forwarded through one or both of the dual Ethernet ports to the LAN. One of the serial ports can also be connected to a V.90 or GPRS modem for PPP connections, and a PCMCIA port is available for installing a wireless LAN card for 802.11b/g networks. By including multiple connection options in the UC-7420's design, user's gain the flexibility needed to connect from virtually anywhere. Combinations of connection types can also be used to provide redundancy. For example, if unavoidable network problems cause an interruption in service, the user can connect by modem. CompactFlash Storage Space One of the dilemmas faced when creating a "small" computer is how to provide users with adequate storage space. For unmanned applications, it is best if the storage device does not contain moving parts. Although hard drives may seem to last forever for day-to-day use, we cannot make this assumption for continuous use at remote locations. The UC-7420 overcomes this problem by providing a CompactFlash slot. If needed, flash memory cards with storage capacity of up to several gigabytes can be used to store data until it is convenient to transfer the data to a central computer.